Shift in perspective?

We can take three different points of view to look at our political & economic interests

  1. First-person perspective: That is your personal perspective. Are you going to buy a new smartphone? Do you really need a fifth pair of sneakers?
  2. Third-party perspective:  Who will win the raw materials for your smartphone and under what conditions are the raw materials mined?
  3. Perspective of the system: Who guarantees that there are no bad health effects from your sneakers/mobile? How can I influence the system for better working conditions?

What is...?

I. First-perspective

  • How important is it for me?
  • Does it concern me?
  • What are my feelings with it?

II. Third-party perspective

  • What actors/instutions are involved?
  • Whose interests are represented?
  • What is the balance of power?
  • What are the chances / risks / dangers?

III. Perspective of the system

  • What is the balance of power?
  • What are the chances / risks / dangers?
  • How did it come to status quo?

What is possible?

I. First-person perspective

  • What are my ideas/wishes…?
  • Is it of any necessity?
  • What are my personal goals?

II. Third-party perspective

  • Is there any agreement or disagreement?
  • How can we find / come to a compromise?
  • How can I improve / change the situation?
  • Are there possible solutions?
  • Are there possible consequences?
  • What interdependence(s) does our action have?

III. Perspective of the system

  • How can I change / improve status quo?
  • What are possible consequences of action / not taking action?
  • What does a possible solution look like?

What shall be?

I. First-perspective

  • What is the benefit for me?
  • Are my ethical limits observed?
  • What do I want to do to change the situation?
  • Which solutions, agreements, compromises can I find / agree on?

II. Third-party perspective

  • Balance of power?
  • Applicable law?
  • How can the problem be solved?
  • What solution / compromise / agreement can be made possible?

III. Perspective of the system

  • Division of power?
  • How is law enforcement built up?
  • How to build up the system?
  • Distribution of scarce resources?
  • Joint guarantee in the system?
  • What balance between freedom and safety / security?
  • How can negative externalities be avoided if appearing?

How to solve problems using criteria?

Justice?

Does the decision / proposal meet…

  • efficiency fairness? (Leistungsgerechtigkeit)
    Are the wages performance based? Is individual performance observed/considered/taken into account of?
  • needs-based fairness?
    (Bedarfsgerechtigkeit) Are the needs in line with / meet the demands of the actors?
  • principal of equality?
    (Chancengengerechtigkeit)

    Do all actors have the same chances/treated equally?
  • generation fairness?
    (Generationengerechtigkeit)

    Are the needs and interests of future generations considered?
Sustainability?
  • Does it offer a permanent solution?
  • Does the decision / the proposal / demand guarantee…
    • ecological sustainability?
    • economical sustainability?
    • social sustainability?
  • Does it establish democratic order?
  • Does it establish politically sustainable development?
Efficiency?
  • Can the aim be reached using less ambitious means / lower requirements?
  • Does reaching the aim justify the applied means / the effort made use of?
Representation?

Are the interests (positions) of social groups adequately represented?

Safety/Security?

Does the decision / proposal / demand guarantee the

    • inner
    • outer

… security?

Participation?

Are there similar chances of social groups for participating adequately in political decision-making process?

Effectivity?

Is the solution of the problem suitable to reach the targeted aim?

There may also be criteria like fairness or sustainability included/intended.

Subsidiarity?

Are the decisions taken solved on the lowest possible level?

Human dignity?

In how far are human dignity and human rights considered?

Personal freedom?
  • Is the sphere of personal privacy protected?
  • Are a free decision making chance, the religious respect, the ideological idea of freedom, free communication, free economic range of action guaranteed?
Legitimacy?
  • Is the decision / action legitimate and justifiable?
  • (Includes criteria such as Human Dignity, Freedom, Participation, Solidarity, Fairness, Transparency and others)
Equality?

Is everyone treated equally?

Legality?
  • Do the procedures of the decision making process and the decisions finally made correspond/match with/meet the legal basis for applied legislation?
  • Basic Rights/fundamental rights?
Transparency
  • Is it a public decision-making process?
  • Is the influence taken by different interest groups open to the public?
Privacy and public
  • What life areas shall be regulated by the state and which not?
  • What forms of private coexistence are being promoted / favoured?
  • What is the difference between acting in a private sphere in comparison to the public sphere?
  • How can privacy be protected in present times of digitisation?
  • Which role do the media have in public discourse?
Power and decision making
  • Which authority does decide in which (official) channels?
  • Who can decide and which legitimation does he/she have to do so? 
  • What possibility do the citizens have to influence the decision-making process?
Scarcity and distribution
  • How shall the use of scarce resources be organised and how shall it be implemented?
  • In a world of scarce resources: How can we distribute the resources in a fair/just/efficient way?
Interests and common good
  • What is ‚good’ politics?
  • What values are important/necessary in our society?
  • What is ‚public good’ in the first place and how can it be measured?
  • Which role do democratic dispute resolutions play in society?
Policy, regulations and law
  • Which policies / regulations / directives / recommendations give ruling on the political or economical scope of action?
  • How are violations detected and societal problems solved?
  • How do policies / regulations / directives / recommendations influence behaviour?
Order and structure
  • How can a political system be structured? Which structural principles are important?
  • Polity: Which interdependencies  are there between the institutions?
  • Which economic order/system is most efficient to solve the problem?
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